The Nile Valley Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley when a group of hunters and gatherers settled the land and created several dozen villages along the river's banks. The Egyptians depended on the Nile for survival. They used its precious water for drinking, bathing, farming, cooking, and cleaning. The dependable flooding of the river deposited rich soil along its banks, which the farmers used to grow wheat, barley, and flax seeds. Egyptians also depended on the river for trade and transportation. Papyrus, a reed plant, grew on the banks of the Nile. Egyptians used papyrus for many things, including paper. A system of writing—hieroglyphics—was developed. The geographic features of the region protected the Egyptians from invasions, allowing the civilization to thrive. The Sahara and Eastern Desert as well as the Nile's cataracts and delta marshes formed natural barriers. The advancements of the society created a need for government. The first rulers were village chiefs, but eventually two kingdoms emerged from the groups of villages. Around 3100 B.C., Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt into one kingdom. After his death, Narmer's family created Egypt's first dynasty. Over a period of about 2,800 years, Egypt would be ruled by 31 dynasties. These years are divided into three periods, which historians call the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Egyptian society was divided into social groups based on wealth and power. Although the father was the head of the household, Egyptian women had many rights. By investigating the main idea statements in your textbook (page 38), you can prepare for the Section Quiz and Chapter Test. Click on a Section 1 main idea below to get started. The Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions. Where did Egyptian civilization begin? How did geography encourage the growth of the Egyptian civilization? Egyptian civilization began in the Nile River valley. The civilization flourished, in part, because of its natural barriers. The Sahara and Eastern deserts on either side of the Nile Valley, along with the dangerous Nile cataracts and delta marshes protected Egypt from invaders. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the text under the head, "Settling the Nile." Then play the Tic-Tac-Toe game to help you gather information to write your response. Assyrian kings divided their empire into political districts called provinces. A civilization is a group of many different lands under one ruler. How did Sumerian city-states lose power? The Egyptians depended on the Nile's floods to grow their crops. How did the Nile floods affect Egyptian farmers? Egyptian farmers relied on the Nile's floods to deposit rich soil in the river valley. They also used the river to develop a system of irrigation. They were able to grow more than enough food for the population. This question asks you to explain a cause-and-effect relationship. Find out more about cause-and-effect relationships by reviewing the skill. A cause is any person, event, or condition that makes something else happen. Something that happens as a result of a cause is known as an effect. A string of causal relationships is known as a cause-effect chain. Identify two or more events. Look for clue words that alert you to cause and effect such as: because, led to, so, brought about, produced, as a result, therefore. Identify the outcome, or result, of events. Scan the section to find the head, "The River People." Then complete the following cause-effect chains by dragging each sentence to either a Cause or Effect box. Do you agree that Egyptian civilization can be called "the Gift of the Nile"? Explain. Why is most farming in ancient Egypt and in present-day Egypt done along the Nile? According to Herodotus, how much land does the Nile cover when it floods? What two questions does Herodotus ask about the Nile? Around 3100 B.C., Egypt's two major kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, were combined into one. What ruler united Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt? Did this kingdom, created by force, last? About 3100 B.C. Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt. The kingdom held together long after Narmer died because members of his family created a dynasty. For a period of more than 2,800 years, Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the section to find the head, "A United Egypt." Then take the Text Challenge to help you gather information to write your response. What factors divided Egyptians into social groups? Egyptian society was divided into social groups based on wealth and power. How was Egyptian society organized? Egypt's society was divided into upper-class priests and nobles, middle-class artisans and merchants, and lower-class workers and farmers. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the text under the head, "Early Egyptian Life." Then play the Matching game to help you gather information to write your response. Identify the four social groups in ancient Egypt, and explain who belonged to each group. cataract Cataracts are steep rapids formed by cliffs and boulders in a river. Narrow cliffs and boulders in the Nile form wild rapids called cataracts. Because of the cataracts, large ships can use the Nile only for its last 650 miles, where it flows through Egypt. delta A delta is an area of fertile soil at the mouth of a river. Shortly before the Nile reaches the Mediterranean Sea, it divides into different branches. These branches fan out over an area of fertile soil called a delta. papyrus Papyrus is a reed plant of the Nile Valley, used to make a form of paper. At first the Egyptians harvested papyrus to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts. Later, they used papyrus for papermaking. hieroglyphics Hieroglyphics is a system of writing made up of thousands of picture symbols developed by the ancient Egyptians. Like people of Mesopotamia, the Egyptians developed their own system of writing. Hieroglyphics was made up of thousands of symbols. dynasty A dynasty is a line of rulers from the same family. Narmer's united kingdom held together long after his death. Members of his family passed the ruling power from father to son to grandson. Such a line of rulers from one family is called a dynasty. approaching coming closer Other geographic features also protected the Egyptians. To the far south, the Nile's dangerous cataracts blocked enemy boats from reaching Egypt. In the north, the delta marshes offered no harbors for invaders approaching from the sea. device tool invented for a specific use In time, Egyptian farmers developed other technology to help them in their work. For example, they used a shadoof, a bucket attached to a long pole, to lift water from the Nile to the basins. Many Egyptian farmers still use this device today. assuring guaranteeing "You create the grain, you bring forth the barley, assuring perpetuity [survival] to the temples. If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish."
—author unknown, "Hymn to the Nile"
cease to stop; to end "You create the grain, you bring forth the barley, assuring perpetuity [survival] to the temples. If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish."
—author unknown, "Hymn to the Nile"
resource something that can be used if needed Papyrus, a reed plant that grew along the shores of the Nile, became a useful resource. At first the Egyptians harvested papyrus to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts. communicate to exchange information Egyptians developed their own system of writing. Called hieroglyphics, it was made up of thousands of picture symbols. Some symbols stood for objects and ideas. To communicate the idea of a boat, for example, a scribe would draw a boat. emerged came into being The advances in farming, crafts, and trade created a need for government in Egypt. Irrigation systems had to be built and maintained, and surplus grain had to be stored and passed out in times of need. In addition, disputes over land ownership had to be settled. Gradually, government emerged to plan and to direct such activities. portion a share Farmers made up the largest group of early Egyptians. Some rented their land from their ruler, paying him with a hefty portion of their crops. stability permanence Historians group Egypt's dynasties into three main time periods called kingdoms. The earliest period, the Old Kingdom, was followed by the Middle Kingdom and then the New Kingdom. Each marked a long period of strong leadership and stability.
This graphic organizer is a web diagram. You can use a web diagram to identify one central idea and organize related information around it. The central idea is written in the center of the web and then broad categories of supporting details are listed in the four outer circles of the diagram. In this diagram, the central idea is irrigation. As you read the section, write an idea related to "irrigation" in each of the four ovals around the main oval to describe Egyptians' irrigation systems. Find out more about Egypt's Nile River by visiting the following Web sites: This Web site takes you on a Nile River Safari where you will learn more about the wildlife that lives in and around the world's longest river. Boston's Museum of Fine Arts exhibit featuring ancient Egypt tells the story of Egyptian art and civilization. You'll also learn about history, language, religion, anthropology, and archaeology. Narrow cliffs and boulders in the Nile River create rapids called __________. cataracts Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Egyptians developed a system of writing called __________. hieroglyphics Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Egyptian government was first ruled by __________. village chiefs Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Ancient Egypt was ruled by 31 ___________, which together lasted almost 3,000 years. dynasties Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Egyptian women had all of the following rights EXCEPT the right to __________. serve as head of the household Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct!
Egypt's Old Kingdom Egypt experienced growth and prosperity during the period known as the Old Kingdom, which lasted from about 2600 B.C. to 2300 B.C. During this time, Egyptian kings created strong governments. The kings, called pharaohs, were believed to be the sons of Re, Egypt's sun god. The Egyptians believed in many deities, and they also believed in life after death for the pharaoh. This belief led the Egyptians to develop a process called embalming to protect the pharaoh's body after death. They also built pyramids to serve as elaborate tombs to store the mummy of the pharaoh. It took hundreds of workers many years to build a pyramid. The Great Pyramid—Egypt's largest and grandest pyramid—was built in Giza in honor of Egypt's King Khufu. By investigating the main idea statements in your textbook (page 47), you can prepare for the Section Quiz and Chapter Test. Click on a Section 2 main idea below to get started. Egypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs. How was Egypt ruled? The all-powerful rulers of Egypt, called pharaohs, ruled the kingdom. They were believed to be related to the Egyptian Sun god, Re. These rulers appointed officials to oversee irrigation, grain storage, trade, and tax collection. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the section to find the head, "Old Kingdom Rulers." Then play the flashcard game to help you gather information to write your response. Imagine you are an ancient Egyptian pharaoh. You are making plans that your followers will carry out after your death. Describe the types of items you want buried with you in your pyramid. Then explain what people from later centuries will know about you if they find those items. The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs. What were the Egyptians' religious beliefs? Religion was a very important part of Egyptian life. The Egyptians believed that many gods and goddesses, or deities, ruled the forces of nature and human activities. They also believed in life after death for the pharaoh, whose body was protected through a process called embalming. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the text under the head, "Egypt's Religion." Then play the Tic-Tac-Toe game to help you gather information to write your response. What were the Egyptians' religious beliefs? Imagine you are an ancient Egyptian pharaoh. You are making plans that your followers will carry out after your death. Describe the types of items you want buried with you in your pyramid. Then explain what people from later centuries will know about you if they find those items. The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs. Why did the Egyptians of the Old Kingdom build pyramids? The pyramids were built to protect the bodies of the pharaohs from such hazards as floods, wild animals, and grave robbers. The Egyptians stored supplies for the pharaoh's next life in the pyramids. The pyramids are very large and were built with very little technology or tools. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the section to find the head, "The Pyramids." Then take the Text Challenge to help you gather information to write your response. Where did Egyptians of the Old Kingdom bury their pharaohs? Imagine you are an ancient Egyptian pharaoh. You are making plans that your followers will carry out after your death. Describe the types of items you want buried with you in your pyramid. Then explain what people from later centuries will know about you if they find those items. pharaoh A pharaoh is an all-powerful king in ancient Egypt. Egyptian kings, or pharaohs as they were called, lived with their families in grand palaces. In fact, the word pharaoh originally meant "great house." deity A deity is a god or goddess. Like the people of Mesopotamia, the ancient Egyptians worshiped many deities, or gods and goddesses. embalming Embalming is a process developed by the ancient Egyptians of preserving a person's body after death. To protect the pharaoh's body, the Egyptians developed a process called embalming. mummy A mummy is a body that has been embalmed and wrapped in linen. The wrapped body was known as a mummy. It was put in several wooden coffins, one fitting inside the other. The pharaoh was then ready for burial in a tomb. pyramid A pyramid is a huge stone structure built by the ancient Egyptians to serve as a tomb. No ordinary tomb would do for a pharaoh of Egypt. Instead the Egyptians built mountain like pyramids entirely of stone. obtain to get through effort One of the most important manuscripts written in ancient Egypt was the Book of the Dead. This was a collection of spells and prayers that Egyptians studied to obtain life after death. focused paid attention to Some doctors focused on treating particular parts of the body, becoming the first specialists in medicine. This graphic organizer is a web diagram. You can use a web diagram to identify one central idea and organize related information around it. The central idea is written in the center of the web and then broad categories of supporting details are listed in the four outer circles of the diagram. In this diagram, the central idea is Egyptian beliefs. As you read the section, write an idea related to "Egyptian beliefs" in each of the four ovals around the main oval to describe different beliefs in Egypt's religion. Find out more about Egypt's Old Kingdom by visiting the following Web sites: Learn more about the pyramids of ancient Egypt at this National Geographic Web site! You can take a virtual tour or use the time line to discover the pyramids. The process developed to protect the pharaoh's body after death is called __________. embalming Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. __________ were gigantic structures built to protect the bodies of the pharaohs. Pyramids Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Egyptian kings were called __________. pharaohs Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. The Great Pyramid was built for __________. Khufu Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Egyptians believed the forces of nature and human activities were under the control of __________. deities Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again.
The Egyptian Empire A new dynasty came to power in Egypt around 2050 B.C., restoring order and stability to the empire. Egypt's Middle Kingdom was marked with peace, prosperity, and accomplishments in art, literature, and architecture. As Egypt expanded its empire, it forced the conquered peoples to pay tribute to the empire, increasing its wealth. Much of the art from this period, including paintings, poetry, and architecture, was in honor of Egypt's pharaohs. The Hyksos attacked Egypt in 1670 B.C., and the Middle Kingdom fell. Around 1550 B.C., an Egyptian prince named Ahmose led a rebellion, driving the Hyksos from Egypt. This began the period called the New Kingdom. During the New Kingdom, Egypt gained new territory and reached the height of its power. The rulers of this period are some of Egypt's most famous pharaohs. They included Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaton, and Tutankhamen. Hatshepsut served as Egypt's first woman pharaoh. Under Thutmose III, Egypt controlled more territory and riches than it ever had. Akhenaton's failed religious reforms cost Egypt precious territory. Tutankhamen, or King Tut, was only pharaoh for a short time, but his legacy is that his tomb—and its treasures—was discovered in A.D. 1922. Although Ramses II regained lost territory and built magnificent temples, the Egyptian Empire was destroyed by 1150 B.C. Egypt was ruled by outsiders for more than 300 years until finally falling to the Assyrians in 670 B.C. By investigating the main idea statements in your textbook (page 59), you can prepare for the Section Quiz and Chapter Test. Click on a Section 3 main idea below to get started. The Middle Kingdom was a golden age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture. Why was the Middle Kingdom called a golden age? During the Middle Kingdom, pharaohs restored peace and stability and expanded Egypt's borders. The kingdom grew wealthy on the tributes from conquered peoples. This peaceful environment allowed the arts to thrive. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the section to find the head, "The Middle Kingdom." Play the Tic-Tac-Toe game below to help you gather information to write your response. Why was the Middle Kingdom called a golden age? During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power. What were the priorities of the New Kingdom pharaohs? How did these priorities affect Egypt? The New Kingdom pharaohs were concerned with trade and conquest. They built a strong empire, expanded trade, and increased the kingdom's borders and wealth. This question asks you to explain a cause-and-effect relationship. Find out more about cause-and-effect relationships by Reviewing the Skill. A cause is any person, event, or condition that makes something else happen. Something that happens as a result of a cause is known as an effect. A string of causal relationships is known as a cause-effect chain. Identify two or more events. Look for clue words that alert you to cause and effect such as: because, led to, so, brought about, produced, as a result, therefore. Identify the outcome, or result, of events. Scan the section to find the head, "The New Kingdom." Then complete the following cause-effect chains by dragging each sentence to either a Cause or Effect box. Use the Internet and your local library to find out more about the reign of one of the Egyptian pharaohs. Create a computer slide show presentation that includes details about the pharaoh's reign and life. Include an illustrated time line of significant events. Akhenaton tried to change Egypt's religion, while Tutankhamen is famous for the treasures found in his tomb. What are the pharaohs Akhenaton and Tutankhamen famous for? Akhenaton's attempts at religious reform failed and left Egypt's kingdom smaller and weaker. Tutankhamen, or "King Tut," only ruled for nine years. He is famous because his tomb, containing incredible treasures, was discovered. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the section to find the head, "The Legacies of Two Pharaohs." Then complete the Venn diagram to help you gather information to write your response. Why are Akhenaton and Tutankhamen well known? How do you think religious leaders reacted to Akhenaton's changes? Under Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great temples, but the empire fell by 1150 B.C. What changes did Ramses II rule bring to Egypt? Did his efforts succeed in restoring the New Kingdom? Ramses II was Egypt's last great pharaoh. His efforts to rebuild the empire included regaining lost lands and building great temples. After his rule, later pharaohs were unable to hold the empire together. It eventually fell to the people of Kush in 760 B.C. This question asks you to explain a cause-and-effect relationship. Find out more about cause-and-effect relationships by Reviewing the Skill. A cause is any person, event, or condition that makes something else happen. Something that happens as a result of a cause is known as an effect. A string of causal relationships is known as a cause-effect chain. Identify two or more events. Look for clue words that alert you to cause and effect such as: because, led to, so, brought about, produced, as a result, therefore. Identify the outcome, or result, of events. Scan the section to find the head, "The End of the New Kingdom." Then complete the following cause-effect chains by dragging each sentence to either a Cause or Effect box. Use the Internet and your local library to find out more about the reign of one of the Egyptian pharaohs. Create a computer slide show presentation that includes details about the pharaoh's reign and life. Include an illustrated time line of significant events. tribute Tribute is a payment made by one group or nation to another to show obedience or to obtain peace or protection. The conquered peoples sent tribute, or forced payments, to the Egyptian pharaoh, enriching the kingdom. incense Incense is a material burned for its pleasant smell. Hatshepsut was more interested in trade than conquest. During her reign, Egyptian traders sailed along the coast of east Africa. They exchanged beads, metal tools, and weapons for ivory, wood, leopard skins, and incense. This graphic organizer is a tree diagram. You can use a tree diagram to determine and summarize a main idea. A main idea is the central concept or issue expressed in a work. It is supported by facts or details. Once you've determined the main idea, type it in the rectangle. Complete the chart by typing the supporting details in the smaller boxes below the main idea. In this diagram, the main idea is the accomplishments of Ramses II. Write Ramses II in the large rectangle. As you read, fill in the smaller boxes with his accomplishments. Find out more about the Egyptian Empire by visiting the following Web sites: The Civilization CA Web site takes you on a virtual tour of Tutankhamen's life, death, treasures, and even a Mummy's Curse. Read more about Ramses the Great at the Sangha Web site. This site features many photos and additional links. The __________, which lasted from 2050 B.C. to 1670 B.C., was marked by stability, prosperity, and achievement. Middle Kingdom Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! The __________ were mighty warriors from western Asia that ended Egypt's Middle Kingdom. Hyksos Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. __________ was the first woman to rule Egypt in her own right. Hatshepsut Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. The Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep IV is most known for __________. attempting religious reforms Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. British archaeologist Howard Carter discovered __________ tomb, which contained incredible treasures. Tutankhamen's Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again.
The Civilization of Kush South of Egypt, the Nubians settled in farming villages and grazed their herds of cattle on the savannas that stretch across Africa south of the Sahara. Eventually, the more powerful Nubian villages formed the kingdom of Kerma. The power struggle between the Nubians and the Egyptians began in the 1400s B.C., when Egypt invaded Kerma, causing the kingdom to collapse. The cultures of Egypt and Nubia blended. When Egypt began to decline, the Nubians broke away and formed the kingdom of Kush. The people of Kush devoted their time to ironworking and grew very wealthy from trade. The Kush capital of Meroë became the center of a large trading network. Kush's trading power lasted 600 years. Sometime in the A.D. 200s, the kingdom of Kush began to weaken, and the kingdom of Axum arose in present-day Ethiopia. By investigating the main idea statements in your textbook (page 68), you can prepare for the Section Quiz and Chapter Test. Click on a Section 4 main idea below to get started. To the south of Egypt, the Nubians settled in farming villages and became strong warriors. Where did the Nubians live? Describe their relationship with the Egyptians. In the Nile Valley, just south of Egypt, the Nubians founded the kingdom of Kerma. They were successful farmers, excellent hunters, and fierce warriors. They traded with the Egyptians. Eventually, they found themselves under Egyptian rule. During this time, they adopted many Egyptian ways. This question asks you to write a short response by describing something. Find out more about short response by Reviewing the Skill. To write a short response to a question, you will be writing a sentence. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts, a subject and a predicate. The subject names what or whom the sentence is about, while the predicate completes the meaning of the verb. The predicate says something about the subject. Scan the section to find the head, "Nubia." Play the Tic-Tac-Toe game below to help you gather information to write your response. Where did the Nubians live? Do you agree that Egyptian civilization can be called "the Gift of the Nile"? Explain. The people of Kush devoted themselves to ironworking and grew wealthy from trade. What events led to the rise of the Kushites? Retrace their steps to power and wealth. After conquering Egypt, the Kushites established a capital at Meroë that served as a center for ironmaking and the base of a large trading network. The Kushites grew powerful and wealthy. This question asks you to explain a cause-and-effect relationship. Find out more about cause-and-effect relationships by Reviewing the Skill. A cause is any person, event, or condition that makes something else happen. Something that happens as a result of a cause is known as an effect. A string of causal relationships is known as a cause-effect chain. Identify two or more events. Look for clue words that alert you to cause and effect such as: because, led to, so, brought about, produced, as a result, therefore. Identify the outcome, or result, of events. Scan the section to find the head, "The Rise of Kush." Then complete the time line by dragging the appropriate event to the correct date along the time line. Use this information to write your response. What made the Kushites wealthy? In what ways did Meroë look like an Egyptian city? savanna grassy plain Historians do not know exactly when people arrived in Nubia. Evidence suggests that cattle herders arrived in about 2000 B.C. They grazed their herds in the savannas, or grassy plains, that stretch across Africa south of the Sahara. This graphic organizer is called a Venn diagram. You can use Venn diagrams to compare and contrast information or to show similarities and differences among various objects or subjects. Use this Venn diagram to compare and contrast Napata and the Meroë. The diagram is made up of two overlapping circles. List differences in the outer parts of each circle, under the headings "Napata" and "Meroë". Then describe similarities between the two capitals in the area where the circles overlap. Learn more about another strong civilization, known as the Kush at the following Web site: Also known as Nubians, the Kush built a powerful empire south of Egypt. Find more about them at the Images from History Web site. Powerful Nubian villages created the kingdom of __________. Kerma Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. The __________ were the first Africans to dedicate themselves to ironworking. Kushites Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Its access to the Nile River and large deposits of iron ore helped __________ to become a wealthy city in the center of a large trading network. Meroë Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. The kingdom of Kush was replaced by another kingdom called __________ in the A.D. 350s. Axum Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Kerma traded its gold, ivory, enslaved people, and __________ with Egypt. cattle Correct! Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again. Your answer is incorrect. Try again.