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Chapter 16: Geologic Time

Practice Test
  1.Which era is known as the age of dinosaurs and for the occurrence of the first mammals?  
  a.   Mesozoic  
  b.   Precambrian  
  c.   Paleozoic  
  d.   Cenozoic  
  2.How are fossils useful?  
  a.   to determine what color an organism was  
  b.   They reveal the soft tissue of an organism.  
  c.   They organize events on Earth into a time line.  
  d.   to determine how many individuals of a type of organism once lived  
  3.What conditions favor the preservation of a fossil?  
  a.   exposure to air and water  
  b.   rapid burial  
  c.   the presence of scavengers  
  d.   the presence of bacteria  
  4.How do fossils form by replacement?  
  a.   Sediment fills in a shell and hardens.  
  b.   An imprint of an organism is left behind in mud.  
  c.   An organism falls into a tar pit and solidifies.  
  d.   Water moves through an organism, depositing minerals in its place.  
  5.What is a fossil?  
  a.   a thin layer of sediment  
  b.   the remains or trace of an organism that was once alive  
  c.   a winged organism  
  d.   an imprint of a shell in plaster of paris  
  6.What is missing in a sequence of rock that contains an unconformity?  
  a.   older volcanic rocks  
  b.   the top layer of rock  
  c.   part of the area's geologic history  
  d.   some sandstone  
  7.Why is the record of geologic history most complete in the Cenozoic era?  
  a.   Cenozoic rocks have the most organisms.  
  b.   Cenozoic rocks are young and have not been subject to as much erosion or other geologic changes as older rocks have.  
  c.   Cenozoic rocks have experienced the most plate tectonic activity.  
  d.   Cenozoic rocks contain the most igneous rocks.  
  8.Which of the following can cause an unconformity?  
  a.   lack of deposition of rock in an area  
  b.   erosion  
  c.   rock uplifted by an earthquake  
  d.   all of the above  
  9.A geologist finds a sequence of rock layers. She notices that a layer of limestone has a formation of granite that cuts through it. Which rock is older?  
  a.   the limestone  
  b.   It is not possible to determine which rock is older.  
  c.   The granite and the limestone are the same age.  
  d.   the granite  
  10.During which era does the fossil record first contain fish?  
  a.   Cenozoic  
  b.   Precambrian  
  c.   Paleozoic  
  d.   Mesozoic  
  11.What does the principle of superposition state about layers of rock?  
  a.   Youngest layers of rock are found at the bottom.  
  b.   Youngest layers of rock are sedimentary.  
  c.   Oldest layers of rock are found at the top.  
  d.   Oldest layers of rock are found at the bottom.  
  12.Which absolute age marks the beginning of the absolute geologic time scale?  
  a.   4.6 billion years ago  
  b.   4.6 million years ago  
  c.   4.6 thousand years ago  
  d.   4.6 trillion years ago  
  13.How can geologists determine the absolute age of a rock?  
  a.   by analyzing the fossil content of the rock  
  b.   by analyzing unconformities above and below the rock  
  c.   by applying the principle of superposition  
  d.   by applying methods of radiometric dating to the rock  
  14.Why do hard parts of organisms aid fossil formation?  
  a.   Hard parts are less likely to be eaten.  
  b.   Hard parts are less likely to be broken.  
  c.   Hard parts are less likely to decompose.  
  d.   all of the above  
  15.Which of the following organisms lived on Earth approximately 2 billion years ago?  
  a.   cats  
  b.   fish  
  c.   bacteria  
  d.   humans  

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