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Chapter 16: Geologic Time

Practice Test
  1.How are fossils useful?  
  a.   They organize events on Earth into a time line.  
  b.   They reveal the soft tissue of an organism.  
  c.   to determine what color an organism was  
  d.   to determine how many individuals of a type of organism once lived  
  2.A geologist finds a sequence of rock layers. She notices that a layer of limestone has a formation of granite that cuts through it. Which rock is older?  
  a.   The granite and the limestone are the same age.  
  b.   It is not possible to determine which rock is older.  
  c.   the granite  
  d.   the limestone  
  3.Which era is known as the age of dinosaurs and for the occurrence of the first mammals?  
  a.   Cenozoic  
  b.   Mesozoic  
  c.   Precambrian  
  d.   Paleozoic  
  4.During which era does the fossil record first contain fish?  
  a.   Precambrian  
  b.   Mesozoic  
  c.   Paleozoic  
  d.   Cenozoic  
  5.Why do hard parts of organisms aid fossil formation?  
  a.   Hard parts are less likely to be broken.  
  b.   Hard parts are less likely to be eaten.  
  c.   Hard parts are less likely to decompose.  
  d.   all of the above  
  6.What conditions favor the preservation of a fossil?  
  a.   the presence of scavengers  
  b.   rapid burial  
  c.   the presence of bacteria  
  d.   exposure to air and water  
  7.Which of the following can cause an unconformity?  
  a.   lack of deposition of rock in an area  
  b.   rock uplifted by an earthquake  
  c.   erosion  
  d.   all of the above  
  8.How do fossils form by replacement?  
  a.   Sediment fills in a shell and hardens.  
  b.   Water moves through an organism, depositing minerals in its place.  
  c.   An organism falls into a tar pit and solidifies.  
  d.   An imprint of an organism is left behind in mud.  
  9.What is missing in a sequence of rock that contains an unconformity?  
  a.   part of the area's geologic history  
  b.   the top layer of rock  
  c.   some sandstone  
  d.   older volcanic rocks  
  10.What is a fossil?  
  a.   a winged organism  
  b.   the remains or trace of an organism that was once alive  
  c.   an imprint of a shell in plaster of paris  
  d.   a thin layer of sediment  
  11.How can geologists determine the absolute age of a rock?  
  a.   by analyzing the fossil content of the rock  
  b.   by applying the principle of superposition  
  c.   by applying methods of radiometric dating to the rock  
  d.   by analyzing unconformities above and below the rock  
  12.Which of the following organisms lived on Earth approximately 2 billion years ago?  
  a.   humans  
  b.   cats  
  c.   fish  
  d.   bacteria  
  13.What does the principle of superposition state about layers of rock?  
  a.   Youngest layers of rock are found at the bottom.  
  b.   Oldest layers of rock are found at the bottom.  
  c.   Oldest layers of rock are found at the top.  
  d.   Youngest layers of rock are sedimentary.  
  14.Which absolute age marks the beginning of the absolute geologic time scale?  
  a.   4.6 thousand years ago  
  b.   4.6 billion years ago  
  c.   4.6 trillion years ago  
  d.   4.6 million years ago  
  15.Why is the record of geologic history most complete in the Cenozoic era?  
  a.   Cenozoic rocks are young and have not been subject to as much erosion or other geologic changes as older rocks have.  
  b.   Cenozoic rocks contain the most igneous rocks.  
  c.   Cenozoic rocks have experienced the most plate tectonic activity.  
  d.   Cenozoic rocks have the most organisms.  

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