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Chapter 16: Geologic Time

Practice Test
  1.During which era does the fossil record first contain fish?  
  a.   Paleozoic  
  b.   Precambrian  
  c.   Cenozoic  
  d.   Mesozoic  
  2.How are fossils useful?  
  a.   to determine what color an organism was  
  b.   to determine how many individuals of a type of organism once lived  
  c.   They organize events on Earth into a time line.  
  d.   They reveal the soft tissue of an organism.  
  3.Which era is known as the age of dinosaurs and for the occurrence of the first mammals?  
  a.   Precambrian  
  b.   Mesozoic  
  c.   Cenozoic  
  d.   Paleozoic  
  4.A geologist finds a sequence of rock layers. She notices that a layer of limestone has a formation of granite that cuts through it. Which rock is older?  
  a.   It is not possible to determine which rock is older.  
  b.   the limestone  
  c.   the granite  
  d.   The granite and the limestone are the same age.  
  5.Which absolute age marks the beginning of the absolute geologic time scale?  
  a.   4.6 thousand years ago  
  b.   4.6 million years ago  
  c.   4.6 billion years ago  
  d.   4.6 trillion years ago  
  6.What is missing in a sequence of rock that contains an unconformity?  
  a.   part of the area's geologic history  
  b.   older volcanic rocks  
  c.   some sandstone  
  d.   the top layer of rock  
  7.Why do hard parts of organisms aid fossil formation?  
  a.   Hard parts are less likely to be eaten.  
  b.   Hard parts are less likely to be broken.  
  c.   some sandstone  
  d.   all of the above  
  8.What conditions favor the preservation of a fossil?  
  a.   the presence of scavengers  
  b.   the presence of bacteria  
  c.   exposure to air and water  
  d.   rapid burial  
  9.Why is the record of geologic history most complete in the Cenozoic era?  
  a.   Cenozoic rocks are young and have not been subject to as much erosion or other geologic changes as older rocks have.  
  b.   Cenozoic rocks contain the most igneous rocks.  
  c.   Cenozoic rocks have experienced the most plate tectonic activity.  
  d.   Cenozoic rocks have the most organisms.  
  10.Which of the following can cause an unconformity?  
  a.   rock uplifted by an earthquake  
  b.   erosion  
  c.   Cenozoic rocks have experienced the most plate tectonic activity.  
  d.   all of the above  
  11.Which of the following organisms lived on Earth approximately 2 billion years ago?  
  a.   bacteria  
  b.   cats  
  c.   humans  
  d.   fish  
  12.What does the principle of superposition state about layers of rock?  
  a.   Youngest layers of rock are found at the bottom.  
  b.   Youngest layers of rock are sedimentary.  
  c.   Oldest layers of rock are found at the bottom.  
  d.   Oldest layers of rock are found at the top.  
  13.How can geologists determine the absolute age of a rock?  
  a.   by applying the principle of superposition  
  b.   by applying methods of radiometric dating to the rock  
  c.   by analyzing the fossil content of the rock  
  d.   by analyzing unconformities above and below the rock  
  14.How do fossils form by replacement?  
  a.   An organism falls into a tar pit and solidifies.  
  b.   Water moves through an organism, depositing minerals in its place.  
  c.   An imprint of an organism is left behind in mud.  
  d.   Sediment fills in a shell and hardens.  
  15.What is a fossil?  
  a.   the remains or trace of an organism that was once alive  
  b.   a winged organism  
  c.   an imprint of a shell in plaster of paris  
  d.   a thin layer of sediment  

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