Chapter 1 Art and You
Chapter 1 Art and
Chapter 2 Developing a Visual Vocabulary
Chapter 3 Creating Art: Media and Processes
Chapter 4 Art Criticism and Aesthetics
Chapter 5 Art History
Chapter 6 Art of Earliest Times
Chapter 7 The Art of Ancient Egypt
Chapter 8 Greek Art
Chapter 9 Roman Art
Chapter 10 The Art of India, China, and Japan
Chapter 11 The Native Arts of the Americas
Chapter 12 African Art
Chapter 13 Early Christian, Byzantine, and Islamic Art
Chapter 14 Early Medieval and Romanesque
Chapter 15 Gothic Art Gothic
Chapter 16 The Italian Renaissance
Chapter 17 Fifteenth-Century Art in Northern Europe
Chapter 18 Art of 16th Century Europe
Chapter 19 Baroque Art
Chapter 20 Rococo Art
Chapter 21 New Styles in Nineteenth-Century
Chapter 22 Art of the Later Nineteenth Century
Chapter 23 Art of the Early Twentieth Century
Chapter 24 Modern Art Movements to the Present
of International Folk Art
Why is art created? When is an object a fine art or applied
art? Enter the permanent collection at this online museum
to find contemporary, southwestern, hispanic, and international
folk art objects. After browsing the exhibits, read about
the artists who create these unique pieces. Choose one who
interests you and create a display or presentation to share
with classmates to demonstrate the role of art in cultures
around the world.
About the National Endowment for the Arts
Discover the work of the NEA, a national organization that
encourages art and creativity. Begin by exploring who they
are and how the National Council on the Arts functions. Then
you can choose to investigate the Millennium Projects on the
Welcome page, or go directly to NEA Home page and explore
art resources, interviews, and artist galleries. What do you
feel is the most important role of the NEA?
This site is a gateway to museums all around the world and
of all types, including art, archeology, natural history,
children's, and photography museums. Locate museums near your
home and plan a visit during a vacation or family trip. Use
the information on the Web site to help prepare for your visit.
Chapter 2 Developing
a Visual Vocabulary
Online Art Dictionary
Are you baffled when the teacher asks you what the Ashcan
School is? This Web site provides definitions of art and art
history concepts accompanied by full-color images. Find five
terms that are new to you, learn their meaning, and see if
you can stump a classmate. Have that person pick five other
terms to test you.
Visit this clever, highly interactive site to learn about
color theory, the moods of different colors, and how artists
have used color to express emotion. Examine the effects and
use of color and click on all the links on this page to gain
an understanding of primary, secondary, tertiary, cool, warm,
and neutral colors. Challenge yourself by reading about color
symbolism in art and then adding more color symbols that you
know about that are not included here.
the Elements of Art
Visit the "Elements and Principles" section of this
Web site to get great definitions accompanied by illustrations
that help you understand the visual language of art. Use the
time line to find an era and/or culture that you have recently
been studying in history class. What kind of art was being
made at that time and place? How did artists use the elements
(line, shape, color, composition) to express themselves?
Chapter 3 Creating
Art: Media and Processes
Colored Pencil Society of America
Colored pencils are often overlooked as a medium for creating
serious works of art. This site shows you some amazing drawings
made with this simple, easy-to-use tool. Visit the gallery
and look for a work that you like. Do you like the subject,
the colors, or the style? Create your own colored pencil drawing
using your favorite aspect of the drawing as a starting point.
Drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci
Da Vinci filled the pages of his notebooks with drawings that
helped him understand human anatomy, the principles of the
natural world, and scientific theories. Start a notebook of
you own by drawing and writing about your life. What do you
do each day? What do you want to be doing in five years? Pick
one of Leonardo's drawings from this Web site and copy it
into your notebook. Write about why you chose this one to
at the George Eastman House
The George Eastman House collection contains more than 400,000
photographs and negatives dating from the invention of photography
to the present day. This site presents a great sample from
the collection. Visit the online gallery to view photographs
made using a variety of photographic processes. Check the
time line to trace the development of the medium. Are you
surprised to find out the date of the first experiments using
Chapter 4 Art Criticism
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with theories
regarding the nature of art. There are many viewpoints when
it comes to discussing something as subjective as art. This
site presents articles on a variety of topics by members of
the American Society for Aesthetics. Read one article and
consider whether you agree or disagree with the author's point
Exploring How You Understand Art
What kind of art do you really like? Why do you like it? How
do your opinions compare to those of your friends and family?
Take the fascinating self-test presented on this site to understand
why you like the art you do. Consider reasons for appreciating
a work of art and discover interesting viewpoints from other
Chapter 5 Art History
Do you think you have a good understanding of how to look
at art? This Web site will teach you some new approaches for
looking at and talking about art. You can create your own
virtual museum of your favorite objects or test your knowledge
with the "Eyes on Art" quiz. Go to the "Double
Vision" section and practice comparing one painting to
Visit the "Style" section of this Web site to read
about art styles from Greek and Roman to Pop and Op. Pick
two art styles that interest you and, for each one, list the
essential characteristics. Using a work of art already in
your portfolio, try re-doing the piece in one or both of the
styles you have researched on this site.
Chapter 6 Art of
Travel to Chauvet Pont D'Arc in France to view the recent
discoveries of ancient cave paintings said to be the oldest
known to date. Explore a map of the caves, view stunning photographs,
and follow the story of discovery and preservation of these
cave paintings. Find out why the caves have been declared
a national historical monument in France.
Paintings of Lascaux
This site presents a sampling of the cave paintings of Lascaux,
which can be enlarged and studied in detail. It also links
to you to several sites about Lascaux and other caves. Pick
one animal image from this site and try drawing it on a large
piece of paper. Imagine what it must have been like for prehistoric
artists to paint such large animals on cave walls.
Go beyond Stonehenge and study images of many other stone
structures in the British Isles. Find detailed information
about the associated folklore. Explore the site and find out
how ancient British islanders tried to cure rickets, whooping
cough and other diseases with the help of the stones.
The Web site of the Oriental Institute Museum gives you a
fascinating glimpse into several ancient cultures. Visit "Highlights
from the Collection" and click on "By Region and
Subject" to get to Assyrian art. Compare the objects
from Assyria with some from the other cultures represented
in the museum. What are some similarities and differences
that you find?
Chapter 7 The Art
of Ancient Egypt
Museum of Art
Join "Rosetta Stone" as she guides you through this
excellent site on ancient Egypt. Learn what the Egyptians
ate and how they wore their hair. Ask the mummy questions
about ancient Egypt and take a fun quiz to test your knowledge.
You can link to "Sahara the Scarab" beetle's site
to see animals from Egypt depicted in ancient art as well
as in modern photography.
Museum of Natural History
How do historians know about the everyday life of ancient
Egyptians? They study the art objects and other artifacts
they left behind. Explore the chronology and the sections
on "Gods and Religion" and "Daily Life."
Imagine that you lived in ancient Egypt and write a poem or
short story describing your life. Try to include at least
three references to things you found on this site.
Have you ever dreamed of exploring the pyramids of Egypt?
You can at this Web site! You can also try to decipher some
hieroglyphics or follow a team of archaeologists excavating
an ancient bakery. You can even send an e-mail to the dig
and ask them questions!
Chapter 8 Greek Art
Learn to think like an archaeologist on this site about ancient
Greek art and culture. Read about dress, furnishings, religion,
and many other aspects of daily life. Discover the two reasons
why Greek vases are such an important tool in understanding
Greek culture. Design your own vase, and imagine that someone
in the future will uncover it. What would you want that person
to know about your life? How would you communicate it on your
View striking images of these famous sculptures that once
adorned the Parthenon in Greece. For the past 150 years, they
have been owned by the British. The Greek government would
like them back. Discover how the marbles came into the possession
of the British in the first place, and read about the dispute
over ownership. After researching this subject, what is your
opinion on what should happen to the sculptures?
Chapter 9 Roman Art
Computer-generated reconstructions of ancient Rome show how
various structures may have looked when Romans inhabited them.
Move through the spaces for yourself. Imagine you are a reporter
who has traveled back in time. What will you tell your readers
about your experiences in ancient Rome?
Buildings of Rome
This site presents a number of important Roman buildings and
other structures with accompanying descriptions. You can study
the Pantheon, Hadrian's Villa, and the Library at Ephesus.
If you were a Roman emperor, what type of building would you
have built? Create a picture using architectural elements
and details that you find on this site-and describe it's use.
Art and History
This site provides a look at Roman sculpture, painting, and
decorated vessels presented in the context of Greek and Roman
history and culture. Choose several objects that you find
on this site and describe how they might have been used and
what importance they held in Ancient Roman culture.
Chapter 10 The Art of India, China, and
Five objects of Indian art from the Los Angeles County Museum
of Art are examined in depth. Each one demonstrates some aspect
of Indian art and has it's own historical time line. Pick
one object and read about the theme associated with it. Name
works of art from at least two other cultures that address
the same theme. What are the similarities and differences
Indian Folk Art
This online exhibit of folk paintings by women artists in
India provides social and cultural information about artists
and their artworks. The bright colors and geometric patterns
are part of an established style that is centuries old. Subjects
include animals, humans, gods, and goddesses. See if you can
find depictions of snakes, a lion, Rama, and Durga and learn
something about their significance.
One of the oldest museum collections in the world, The National
Palace Museum was begun in the tenth century by Northern Sung
emperors who wanted to accumulate the treasures of China.
Search the collections for a jade cabbage, an Emperor's helmet,
and a silver cup in the shape of a raft.
View paintings in a private collection of Japanese art grouped
by subject, time period, or artist to learn about the history
of Japanese painting. Find out what Shin'enKan means. Why
do you think the collectors gave their collection this name?
Look for the section on artist's seals and invent a symbol
to be the seal for your own artwork.
Chapter 11 The Native Arts of the Americas
Museum of the Native American
The Museum of the Native American contains approximately one
million objects. Cultures from the Arctic to Tierra del Fuego
are represented. Click on "Conexus" to access interviews
with four contemporary Native American artists. What are some
similarities that you find among the four artists? What are
some of the differences?
Coast Virtual Museum
Explore Native American and Northwest Coast art, history,
and culture in this online virtual exhibition. Visit an exhibit
on the artwork of the Inuit community or on North American
Landscape art. Examine images of Native American totems, masks,
kayaks, and canoes.
Mayan, and Aztec Cultures
An extensive look at three major Pre-Columbian cultures. Enter
each one to read about art, architecture, religious beliefs,
and other aspects of daily life. Examine objects from each
culture and compare them. Identify several items in your own
life that relate to some of the objects you see created by
these cultures and explain the connection.
Chapter 12 African
Museum of African Art
The National Museum of African Art is a wonderful resource
for the study of African art traditions. This site allows
you to explore present and upcoming exhibitions. Look for
the Images of Power and Identity exhibition. Study the objects
displayed here and identify three things that are images of
power and identity in African society today.
The Art of a Continent
Created to accompany a 1996 show of African art at the Guggenheim
Museum in New York, this site takes a geographic and geographic
look at African art. Click on the continent of Africa to investigate
the art of each region. What factors described on this site
explain why particular materials or symbols are used in different
The Kennedy Center for the Arts has compiled an extensive
collection of information about the arts of Africa. This site
provides you a glimpse of African art in a broader cultural
context including music, dance, and theatre. Go to the Interactive
Opportunities section to ask a question of an artist, performer,
or scholar of African culture.
and Life in Africa
This site includes a list of more than 20 African cultures.
Clicking on each one gives you information on the art, history,
economics, religion, and geography of that group. Find out
which cultures are neighbors and look for similarities in
their art forms.
Chapter 13 Early
Christian, Byzantine, and Islamic Art
This site describes the history of the Roman catacombs, ancient
underground burial sites used by the early Christians. Go
to the section on symbols and read about the significance
of various images that decorate the catacombs. Find out the
meaning of the fish, dove, anchor, and phoenix.
of Hagia Sophia
The Hagia Sophia is one of the earliest churches and has a
long history involving many changes. This site is a concise
explanation of the building's transformation from a church
to a mosque to a museum. Research a building in your community
that has had its use changed over the years. Why did the building's
Glory of Byzantium
This interactive virtual exhibition was created in conjunction
with a 1997 exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art called
"The Glory of Byzantium." Explore Byzantine art
by individual artwork or by theme at this online exhibit.
You may also explore artworks in the context of Byzantine
Read all about this incredible example of Islamic architecture
that was built in honor of a shah's wife. Study the floor
plan and look at close-up views of interior decoration. If
you could build a structure to honor someone, who would it
be, and what would you build? Draw a floor plan and a frontal
view of the building in your sketchbook.
Chapter 14 Early
Medieval and Romanesque
Medieval Manuscript Sampler
This site presents several excellent examples of medieval
manuscript illumination from the collection of the Getty Museum.
The works range in date from 1025 to 1596. Click on the images
to see an enlargement or to read background information about
the piece. Scroll down the page and select "Making Manuscripts"
to view a video about how these ancient manuscripts were created.
View detailed examples of architecture in the Romanesque style.
Listed by location, the site takes you through each structure,
pointing out typical Romanesque features. Design a building
façade in your sketchbook using the characteristic
Romanesque forms found on this Web site.
Charlemagne hoped to fulfill his dream of creating a "new
Rome" when he built a palace fit for an emperor at the
end of the eighth century. Read about the history of Aachen
Cathedral and the current efforts to preserve it for future
generations. Why is it important that structures like this
Chapter 15 Gothic
Where did the pigments come from used in making medieval manuscripts?
Describe a typical day in the life of a scribe. Find the answers
on this site that examines illuminated manuscripts before
the development of printing. Learn what was involved in creating
a completely handmade book. Describe what clues we have that
tell how books were valued in those days. Do you think we
still value books as highly today? Why or why not?
Age of King Charles V
This site presents 1000 illuminations from the Bibliothèque
Nationale in France to tell the story of the life and times
of King Charles V. As you read through the history, there
are clickable areas that take you to pictures describing the
events. You can also search the illuminations by the manuscript
they come from, or by theme, including hunting, music, and
religion. Choose three of your favorites, print out the pictures,
and describe why you chose them.
Choose the various links on this site to view images of Gothic
cathedrals from all over Europe. Click on "Gothic Field
Guide" in the left-hand index and read about the elements
that characterize Gothic architecture. Select "Feature
Articles" and learn interesting facts about Gothic art
and history. Select an image from the site and list the Gothic
elements you see.
History and Technique
This site describes the history and development of fresco
painting in Western art from the cave paintings of Lascaux
to the experiments of Leonardo da Vinci. Learn the difference
between true fresco and fresco secco. Which technique would
you use to decorate an important building?
Read an in-depth biography of this important transitional
artist. Find out what the Renaissance biographer, Giorgio
Vasari, had to say about Giotto. Make a list of at least three
aspects of Giotto's art described on this site that distinguish
it from the art that preceded it.
Chapter 16 The Italian Renaissance
This site offers some theories on why Leonardo might have
written in mirror writing. Check out "Leonardo: Right
to Left" and see what you think. You can type in a phrase
and the computer will write it for you as he would have. Visit
"The Inventors Workshop" section to read about his
many inventions. This site also offers an excellent glossary
Art of Michelangelo
Discover this gallery containing works of this Renaissance
master. You can scroll through sculptures, paintings, frescoes
in the Sistine Chapel, drawings, and architectural works.
The site also includes an excellent in-depth biography. Discuss
what you find about Michelangelo's art that represents Renaissance
At this site, you can access concise biographies of several
Renaissance artists including Masaccio, Donatello, and Brunellesci.
In each section, links take you to images that show works
by that artist. Pick two artists who work in different styles
and do a comparison. What makes them different?
Chapter 17 Fifteenth-Century
Art in Northern Europe
Read an in-depth biography of the man who, in the 1400s, brought
the use of oil paint to new heights. No one before Jan van
Eyck had exploited the medium in quite the same way. Imagine
you could go back in time and meet van Eyck. What would you
ask him about his innovative use of oil? How do you think
he would respond?
Renaissance Painting at the National Gallery of Art
Explore the collection at the National Gallery of Art and
get a closer look at the art of Rogier van der Weyden, Dirck
Bouts, and others. If you were going to publish an art book,
which four or five works of art from this Web site would you
include to emphasize the spirit of Netherlandish painting
in the 1400s?
Chapter 18 Art of
and the North in the 1500s
Take a tour of Venetian and Northern European art in the 1500s
at the National Gallery of Art site. Design your own installation
for the artworks on this Web site. Would you use the same
groupings as the museum (based on time and place)? What are
some other ways you could organize and display the collection?
This site provides an overview of Mannerism with links to
Mannerist artworks in galleries around the world. Why did
High Renaissance art evolve into Mannerism? Which style of
art do you prefer? Why?
Chapter 19 Baroque
Art and Architecture
This site provides an overview of Baroque art with links to
Baroque artworks in galleries around the world. Select a baroque
painting to examine by a French, Dutch, and Italian artist.
What are some similarities in the three pieces? What are some
of the differences you can identify?
Artists of the Baroque Age
Study the art of Clara Peters, Judith Leyster, and Maria Sibylla
Merian, whose botanical drawings recently appeared on first-class
U.S. postage stamps. What were some obstacles faced by women
artists in the 1600s? Click on "Permanent Collection"
to access a selection, organized by century, from the holdings
of the National Museum of Women in the Arts.
Art of Vermeer
Look at a number of works by Vermeer with detail views and
commentaries. In the lower left corner of the screen, you
can access a World Events feature. Pick one year during Vermeer's
life and find out what was going on in Rome, Madrid, Paris,
and his hometown of Delft.
Chapter 20 Rococo
Age of Enlightenment
This is a great site from the French Ministry of Culture that
provides historical background, a genealogy of the royal family,
and an index of paintings and artists. Why was this period
called the Age of Enlightenment? If you gave a name to the
late twentieth century, what would you call it? Why?
Study the work of Boucher, Fragonard, Watteau, and Chardin
in the National Gallery of Art. Look for the characteristics
of Rococo art in the paintings on this site. What is it about
Chardin's art that makes it different from his contemporaries?
Explore decorative arts from the collection of the Getty Museum.
Look especially at the Corner Cupboard by Dubois and the Wall
Light. How do these objects reflect the Rococo style? In your
sketchbook, design an everyday object (like a chair, desk,
or lamp) that displays Rococo decorative elements.
Chapter 21 New Styles
Painting in the 1800s
This site provides a great selection of images. You can get
a close look at paintings by David, Ingres, Gericault, Delacroix,
Courbet, and others. You can view many paintings by Monet.
When you look at the nineteenth century as a whole, what would
you say is the most important change that occurred in art
during this time?
Art of Rodin
You can view many of Rodin's sculptures here and also see
some of the clay models he made in preparation for the final
sculpture. Look for the Burghers of Calais and find the models.
Think of all the ways that making a clay model is helpful
when making a sculpture in a more permanent medium like bronze
Study the art of Rosa Bonheur, Mary Cassatt, Camille Claudel,
and others. Does it seem that things had gotten any easier
for women artists since the Renaissance? What barriers did
they still have to overcome? What were some of their achievements?
Do you think women artists still have a harder time than men?
Chapter 22 Art of
the Later Nineteenth Century
Scroll down to the Post-Impressionists to access the work
of Seurat, van Gogh, Gauguin, and others. Each Post-Impressionist
artist has a very individual style. Try an experiment with
an existing painting or drawing in your portfolio. Create
two or three other versions in the style of your favorite
This is a large site that is organized by types of pictures
(portraits, places, for instance), and also has excerpts of
Vincent's letters. There are examples of works done by van
Gogh when he was a teenager (and as young as nine!) Why do
you think van Gogh has become so popular when he only sold
one painting in his lifetime? Why do you think the public's
opinion of art can change so much over time?
This site brings together 160 works in an online exhibition
of this American master. Click on the Online Exhibition and
keep clicking on "next" to view Homer's works. Pick
one painting that you like and use it as a starting point
for writing a poem. Think about what you would hear, smell,
feel, see, and taste if you could be inside the painting and
include all these sensations in your poem.
Tanner as Storyteller
Learn more about the story of Daniel in the Lion's Den and
more about Tanner's life. Scroll to the bottom of the page
and try to answer the "Questions about the Artwork."
Chapter 23 Art of
the Early Twentieth Century
View artworks by Matisse and by other Fauve artists on this
site. An introduction to the Fauve movement is provided along
with a brief biography of the artists featured. Describe the
characteristics of Fauve art that you identify in the various
This virtual gallery offers a number of the greatest of Rivera's
paintings and murals as well as a good biography. You can
access film clips of Rivera at work and with his wife, the
artist Frida Kahlo. Study Rivera's work and conduct a treasure
hunt. Identify images in his artwork that has an association
with each of the following: The Italian Renaissance, Cubism,
and Pre-Columbian Art.
Morgan Center for the Arts
This 1908 building designed by Julia Morgan as a Presbyterian
Church has since been turned into a performing arts center.
At this site, you can access Julia's Story, as well as learn
more about her architecture. Click on " The Building
to see Morgans elevation drawings. Design a floor plan for
house that you would like live in. How many rooms need? What
does area surrounds your look like?
Chapter 24 Modern
Art Movements to the Present
Institute of American Art
Many important American artists are represented in this online
collection. Click on a name and view one or more works by
the artist of your choice. Look for Helen Frankenthaler, Edward
Hopper, and others represented in this chapter.
This site introduces you to many of the important African
American artists of the twentieth century. Link to information
on the Harlem Renaissance and other important literary and
historical figures. Look for the work of Jacob Lawrence. Try
creating a series of image that tell a story as Lawrence did.
Explore the historical events leading to the development of
Abstract Expressionism. Then after reading through the first
page, click on several artists of the period, including Piet
Mondrian and Jackson Pollock. Study one of the images that
interests you, and write a paragraph to express what you see
in the image or how it makes you feel.
Art: Andy Warhol
Did you know that Andy Warhol started his art career designing
window displays for a New York department store? Find out
more interesting tidbits about this quintessential Pop Artist.
Pick an everyday object (as Warhol did with the Campbell's
soup can) and create a painting or drawing.
The time line on the George Eastman House site provides a
wealth of information on photography. Click on the 1998 end
of the time line to access the last 10 years of technological
developments. What do you think the use of digital cameras
and computers will do to the creation of art? Outline some
of the issues that are involved and work with your teacher
and other classmates for a debate on the future of art in
the age of technology. What do you think is coming next?