Chapter 14: Citizenship and Equal
American citizens have many rights
and responsibilities. Chapter 14 focuses on the responsibilities
of citizenship and the rights that go along with them.
Section 1 deals with people
in the United States who are not citizensaliens and
immigrants. Then the section outlines the history of immigration
and immigration laws in the United States.
Section 2 defines what makes
a citizen. The Fourteenth Amendment clearly established that
people of all races born in the United States are citizens.
The principle jus sanguinis holds that all people born
to American citizens but not born in the United States are
also automatic citizens. Naturalization is the process that
grants immigrants U.S. citizenship. All citizens, whether
native-born or naturalized, must be willing to participate
in the political life of the United States.
Section 3 explores the rights
of the accused. On the one hand, society must protect itself
against criminals. At the same time, individual rights must
be preserved. Justice in a democracy means protecting the
innocent from government police power as well as punishing
the guilty. This section explains how the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth,
and Eighth Amendments provide justice for all.
Section 4 discusses the
American ideal of equal protection under the law. Everyone
is entitled to equal rights and treatment under the law. However,
this does not mean that everyone is equally affected by each
law. The Supreme Court applies several tests to determine
if laws meet the American ideal, among them the rational basis
test, the suspect classification scrutiny, and the fundamental
Section 5 describes the
challenges to civil liberties that Americans and their institutions
face. Changing ideas, social conditions, and technology have
combined to raise new issues for civil liberties. The national
government has tried to meet the challenges with affirmative
action programs and legislation aimed at eliminating discrimination
against women and minorities.