Chapter 22: Foreign Policy and Defense
Increasingly, governments make
choices about how their citizens will be affected by interaction
with other nations. Chapter 22 focuses on how American foreign
policy is established.
Section 1 outlines the development
of foreign policy. Once an isolationist nation, the United
States today confronts global challenges: persecution of political
dissenters in several nations, increased economic and trade
competition, and the spread of international terrorism. However,
the principal goal of American foreign policy is, as it always
has been, to preserve the national security of the United
Section 2 describes how
the executive and legislative branches share foreign policy
powers. Congress has the power to declare war and to control
government spending. Nevertheless, the president has advantages
over Congress in conducting foreign affairsspeaking
for the nation in its dealings with other governments, controlling
the agencies that carry out day-to-day foreign policy, and
being able to take quick decisive action while maintaining
Section 3 deals with the
responsibilities of the State and Defense departments. The
primary objective of the Department of State is to promote
the long-range security and well-being of the United States.
The primary function of the Department of Defense is the defense
of the nation.
Section 4 explores American
foreign policy in action. To settle conflicts peacefully,
the United States government uses diplomatic tools such as
alliances, foreign aid, and economic sanctions. When diplomacy
fails, military action is sometimes necessary.