Most archaeologists believe that there have been people on the earth for about 1.75 million years. The period beginning when people first appeared and ending when writing developed about 5,000 years ago is called prehistory. The period after writing developed is called history. Chapter 2 explores the prehistoric period and the beginning of civilization, when people began to advance culturally and to live in cities.
Section 1 discusses the Paleolithic Age, when people first began to migrate from Africa to Europe and Asia. It explains how tools, language, clothing, and the discovery of fire helped early people, the Neanderthals and the Cro-Magnons, advance.
Section 2 focuses on the Neolithic Age, when people changed from food gatherers to food producers. It explains why specialization, government, and religion were important in Neolithic societies.