Chapter 7 discusses the military empires that rose and fell in Mesopotamia during the period when the Phoenicians and the Hebrews were developing civilizations. The Assyrians, the Chaldeans, and the Persians established these empires. These peoples raised powerful armies and expanded into neighboring lands, spreading both their customs and their ideas.
Section 1 covers the Assyrians, explaining how they established and maintained a large empire in Mesopotamia with their powerful and well-organized army. Although the Assyrian empire was divided into provinces, it became too large to govern and eventually failed.
Section 2 deals with the Chaldeans, another warrior people. The Chaldeans called themselves Babylonians and built a capital at Babylon, which is described as a rich center of trade, arts, and science.
Section 3 focuses on the Persians, a people who lived as warriors, farmers, and shepherds. Although the Persians were not traders, they encouraged trading within their empire through which caravans traveled to and from China.