Chapter 9 focuses on the beginnings of Greek civilization, explaining how it developed from two earlier civilizationsMinoan and Mycenaean. Although both these sea powers were eventually destroyed, the Minoans and Mycenaeans left an important legacy to the Greeks.
Section 1 discusses the development and fall of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. Minoans worshiped many gods and built shrines to worship the Great Goddess, Mother Earth. Although they were first farmers, most Minoans turned to trade to earn a living, helped by their location in the Mediterranean Sea. Only legend explains why control of Crete and the sea ultimately fell to the Mycenaeans.
Section 2 follows the migration of the Mycenaeans from southern Russia through the Balkan Peninsula to Greece. Although successful traders, the Mycenaeans were happier being warriors. After years of civil war and a successful war with Troy, the Mycenaeans were conquered by the Dorians. The Aegean world entered a "Dark Age" that lasted for 300 years. As a new civilization emerged, its people called themselves Greeks.