After the Greek city-states lost their independence, many changes took place. The new rulers of Greece built empires and increased trade, thereby spreading Greek culture and customs to other parts of the world. Chapter 12 explores this period which has come to be called the Hellenistic Age.
Section 1 explains how Philip II of Macedonia gained control of Greece and set out to unify the city-states and spread Greek culture.
Section 2 describes how Alexander, the son of Philip II, attempted to bring unity to his empire after his father died. Alexander was a great general who never lost a battle and whose conquests stretched from the Nile River to the Indus River. He tried to bring the Macedonians, the Greeks, and the Persians together but was unsuccessful. After Alexander's death, many Greeks emigrated in response to the disunity and powerlessness of the city-states. Greek cultural influences, however, became stronger than ever.