Leaders in the Roman Catholic Church wanted to develop a civilization in western Europe that was based on Christian ideals. By A.D. 1000, missionary monks had brought the Church's teachings to most of Europe. Chapter 25 is about the Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages.
Section 1 explains how the Roman Catholic Church influenced daily and political life during the Middle Ages and describes the actions of the Church toward suspected heretics during the Inquisition.
Section 2 covers the attempts that were made to return the Church to Christian ideals during the Middle Ages under the direction of the Monks of Cluny, Pope Gregory VII and the Franciscan and Dominican friars.
Section 3 focuses on the growth of learning that took place in the late Middle Ages with the development of cathedral schools and universities. Thomas Aquinas, a noted scholar of this period, is highlighted for his attempts to bring faith and reason together.
Section 4 explains why a series of Christian holy wars against the Muslims, called the Crusades, took place for about 200 years during the Middle Ages. This section also examines the effects of the Crusades.