The growth of trade and towns during the late Middle Ages led to many changes in western Europe. Some of these changes were political. People wanted a return to strong central governments led by kings. Chapter 27 focuses on the rise of monarchies and how they led to the decline of feudalism in western Europe.
Section 1 discusses how the Capetian kings strengthened the French monarchy over a period of 300 years.
Section 2 describes the changes that took place in the English monarchy during the Middle Ages under the reigns of William the Conqueror, Henry II, Henry's sons, Richard and John, and Edward I. The section highlights the signing of the Magna Carta and the establishment of Parliament.
Section 3 explains the main causes and results of the Hundred Years' War fought between England and France.
Section 4 tells about how the Holy Roman Empire was created and ruled.
Section 5 focuses on how King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella conquered the Moors and turned Spain into a united, but weak, Catholic monarchy.