In this Art Quest, you will be able to take an in-depth look at the art of ancient Japan. You will study the Jomon Period, Yayoi Period, Kofun or Tummulus Period, Asuka Period, and Hakuho Period. While exploring the art of ancient Japan, you will have the opportunity to visit several museums, including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, to see examples of these time periods.
The earliest period of Japanese history, the Jomon period, lasted for thousands of years. It was during this time that people began to create pottery vessels and small figures. This pottery was decorated by pressing objects—often ropes—into clay and by carving into clay. A plant called hemp was also important during this time period; it was used to weave ropes, baskets, and clothing.
The pottery often looks like it is made of ropes. How do you think the lugs (a lug is a projecting piece by which something is connected, supported, or lifted) were used by the Japanese during the Jomon period? Look at the following example to help you answer this question.
Early Japanese pots like these—made four to five thousand years ago—were made with coils of clay.
Japanese people were also making little figures called dogus during this period, which can be seen in the examples below. They have been found all over Japan, and although there are many speculations for why they were made, no one really knows.
Why do you think they made them? Were they dolls? Spacemen? Gods? Good luck charms? How many ideas can you come up with?
Yayoi Period (300 B.C. – 260 A.D.)
During this time period, people from Korea began to migrate to Japan, bringing their pottery and craft traditions with them. This influenced early Japanese pottery-making. They began to use clays that were finer in texture so that the walls of their coil-built pottery could be thinner and the shapes more refined. Look at the examples below to discover the differences.
Dotaku or Bronze Bells
Bell-shaped bronze artworks from this time period have also been found. Some experts believe that these were symbols of authority. Others believe that these bells were used as spiritual objects. They have never been found in tombs, as other artifacts have. These bronze bells are called dotaku.
The religion of this time was Shinto. "Shinto, which means 'Way of the Gods,' began as a simple form of nature worship." [New Standard Encyclopedia, Volume 15, Standard Educational Corporation, Chicago, 1994]
How do you think the dotaku might have been used?
Kofun or Tumulus Period (300 A.D. to 550 A.D.)
Tumulus, Keyhole-Shaped Tombs
The Kofun, or Tumulus, period is named for the tombs of the heads of the villages. When a village had a good leader, the villagers prospered. Even when he died, the villagers hoped or believed that the spirit of the leader would keep the village safe.
This is what the tombs looked like:
All sorts of things were put inside the tombs, from jewelry to pottery to farm implements.
The tombs were topped or bordered by Haniwa—large ceramic cylinder shapes topped with figures of people, animals, or even inanimate objects such as architecture or boats. How many different kinds can you find?
Influenced by people of China and Korea, the potter's wheel began to be used to create ceramics. The shapes became rounder and the ceramic pottery thinner as a result.
This pottery, known as Sueki or Sue ware, was technically more advanced than the pottery that came before it. Sue ware continued to be made for hundreds of years. The clay of the sue ware pots was usually gray and the glaze was greenish.
Why do you think that using a potter's wheel rather than building by hand makes a difference in the shape and thickness of a pot?
Asuka and Hakuho Periods (552 A.D. – 710 A.D.)
Temples and Statues of Buddha
The religion of Buddhism, which spread from China to Japan, was a strong influence on the art of this period. Many temples and carved wooden or cast bronze images of Buddha began to be made.
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