Students with behavior disorders
of any type require a class environment that provides
both support and structure so that they know what to
expect and what will be expected of them. Experiment
to determine the best learning modality for each student
and structure activities accordingly. For example, a
visual learner would benefit from having material presented
in the form of photographs or computer graphics. Students
who act out in class may need assignments to match their
learning styles. Approaches like these will help students
comprehend the material and enable them to participate
better in class discussions.
Gifted students may find that the
material in this chapter offers them a first look at
real-world organizational behavior. Encourage these
students to take on a wide variety of enrichment and
independent practice activities that will put them in
contact with people in the business world and allow
them to observe the daily practices that lead to success.
Be sure they have the opportunity to present written
summaries of their findings and let them share what
they observed with the group.
Have gifted students work in small
groups to complete an analysis of the stocks offered
by a company of their choice. Encourage each group to
employ a variety of research techniques to put together
a profile of the company and explain why that company's
stock would be a good financial investment.
Students in your class who consistently
finish work more quickly than others and who have above
average ability, task commitment, and creativity may
be considered gifted. You may wish to challenge these
students to work on an independent project related to
investment alternatives, such as real estate, precious
metals, gems, and collectibles. Have them choose a specific
alternative investment and calculate an estimated return
on investment in, say, 10 years.
For students who would benefit from
the additional work of an independent project, assign
the task of researching a successful business in the
area and discovering through written reports and/or
personal interviews how the concepts described Unit
5, Introduction to Business Finance, and Unit 6, Organization
and Financial Planning, affected the business in its
first few years. For example, how did their initial
estimates of profitability vary from paper to real numbers?
What sources of financing did the business utilize,
and what would they recommend to other businesses in
the start-up phase?
You may find it helpful to pair students
with hearing impairments with hearing partners to work
on the activities and questions presented in this chapter.
Hearing students can assist students with hearing impairments
by writing a summary of all oral directions given in
class. In addition to benefiting students with hearing
impairments, the hearing student will also benefit from
the enhanced knowledge they gain about how students
with hearing impairments compensate for their challenge.
Students with hearing impairments
can and do participate in a wide range of classroom
activities. To encourage their maximum participation,
look at these students when you speak. Do this even
if the student talks with the assistance of an interpreter.
Not only is this more courteous, but it also allows
the student with hearing impairments the option of viewing
you and your lip movements directly. If class materials
involve technical terminology, supply a list of these
words in advance to the student and his or her interpreter.
Unfamiliar words can be difficult to lip-read or sign
without prior exposure.
Many students with hearing impairments,
ranging from complete loss to moderate loss, communicate
mainly by sign language. When it comes to written English,
they are actually using it as a second language, much
like students who are nonnative speakers.
Many factors affect the comfort level
of students with hearing impairments. These include
personality, intelligence, degree of deafness, residual
hearing, age of onset of deafness, and family environment.
This does not mean, however, that you should overlook
errors in spoken or written English. Improvement can
occur with increased use, correction, and exposure.
Students who wear hearing aids can
be easily distracted by background noise, so it is important
to restrict unneeded interference. Each hearing aid
has its own limited range of use. Therefore, you will
need to learn how close to stand so the student can
hear you. Keep in mind that comments made in the back
of the room may be inaudible. You can repeat questions
or comments for the benefit of the hearing-impaired,
or include a question in your answer.
If you have students in your class
with learning disabilities, they may require additional
guidelines or even study aides to get the most out of
the material presented in the textbook. For example,
for students who find the written text difficult to
use, you may wish to make chapter audio tapes so they
can listen and read simultaneously. The tapes can be
made with the help of other students in the class. Select
students whose voices are clear and easy to follow.
Set a relaxed pace for the reading, and use a bell or
clicker to signal when to turn pages. Getting as many
students as possible involved can make the audio tape
preparation a real class project in the best tradition
of cooperative learning.
with learning disabilities can have difficulty processing
information in written and/or oral form. It is important
that students with learning disabilities receive and
give information in a way that works best for them.
who have difficulty processing written work often find
it helpful to have the text tape-recorded. Obtaining
information from visual representations such as graphs,
charts, tables, and headings also helps. Students who
have problems with spoken presentations are advised
to read materials before class discussion. They should
also read notes taken in class by other students to
ensure that they are not missing any valuable information.
students with learning disabilities may have trouble
with symbols, such as numbers, learning the material
in the chapter could present challenges. Some students
can more easily access the information when it is read
aloud, either by a person or on tape. Students who have
difficulty communicating effectively through printing
or cursive writing may prefer to use a computer to perform
calculations or to dictate their work to another person.
In general, students with learning disabilities benefit
from a classroom that incorporates a wide variety of
learning modalities (visual, auditory, tactile, and
with learning disabilities may require additional assistance
completing some of the activities in Chapter 21, Developing
a Business Plan. The scope of developing a business
plan can be complex and requires analytical ability
and methodical work. Break the task up into self-contained
steps and provide additional assistance as needed. A
variety of resources can come into play, including peer
assistance or adult mentors. Students with learning
disabilities require more support and structure. Clearly
specify the scope of the assignment and review their
work on a regular basis throughout the course of the
a positive learning environment for all the students
in your class may require you to modify or rethink some
of your teaching methods. If you have students in your
class with learning disabilities, you may wish to consult
specialists in your school regarding techniques that
have proven effective in teaching these students. You
might also consult the Journal of Learning Disabilities
or the Learning Disability Quarterly. Pairing
students with peer helpers, when appropriate, can also
serve to increase the participation of students with
learning disabilities in class activities, provided
a good pair match can be made.
with Orthopedic Disabilities
of the special situations brought up by having students
with orthopedic impairments in your class is that you
have the opportunity to educate other students and adults
about people with physical impairments. Speak with your
students who have orthopedic impairments ahead of time,
discuss any issues you feel uncertain about, and read
the various educational journals about ways in which
students with physical impairments are succeeding in
the world. You can learn a great deal and overcome any
doubts you may have about the capabilities of these
individuals. Be aware that the way you treat students
with physical impairments will be imitated. Use the
opportunity to increase student awareness.
choices for students with orthopedic impairments need
not be limited in any way other than by the interests
and talents of the individual student. In order to help
all students overcome preconceived notions about existing
career choices, invite a marketer, entrepreneur, or
other successful person with physical impairments to
class to speak about his or her career. Invite him or
her to discuss any obstacles that could have hindered
his or her success and how they were overcome. Allow
time for questions and encourage students to ask questions
about physical barriers to entering buildings as well
as biased treatment.
you have students who have orthopedic impairments, making
sure they have access to the classroom can be one of
the first steps you take to ensure their full participation
in the class. Be aware that a barrier can be a stair,
a curb, a narrow walkway, a heavy door, or an elevator
door that does not allow time for a wheelchair exit.
Classroom tables need at least 27½ inches of clearance
for a student in a wheelchair.
keep in mind that some students in wheelchairs have
full use of their hands and others do not. Never assume
that a physically challenged student can or can't do
something based on experience with another student.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 makes it illegal
for companies to deny employment opportunities to otherwise
qualified individuals who have real or perceived mental
or physical disabilities. It also requires employers
to make reasonable accommodations to enable disabled
workers to perform their work. This includes access
to entrances and exits and to the work itself. These
factors influence workplace design and personnel space
design, as well as encourage companies to design buildings
that all people can enter and exit without difficulty.
You may wish to consider these issues in chapter discussions.
your class involves field research or field trips of
any kind, encourage students with orthopedic impairments
to participate in site selection and transportation
planning to ensure the access to all sites for all students.
Access issues are of major concern for students who
use wheelchairs, and barriers, such as stairs, curbs,
narrow walkways, heavy doors, etc., must be taken into
account when planning an event. By making the fieldwork
accessible to all students, you allow a positive rather
than an exclusionary situation. Awareness is the key
issue, along with a willingness to learn of the daily
problems faced by those with physical challenges.
who use wheelchairs do so as a result of a wide variety
of disabilities. Most wheelchairs are electric or manually
propelled by the student, but some students who have
limited use of hands or arms may have an aide to assist
them. Most students who need other assistance will ask.
Don't automatically assume that assistance is required.
Do not insist on "helping" if your offer is turned down.
Students who use wheelchairs will appreciate your awareness
if you are not so aware of their disability that it
becomes all you see about them.
Students as Second
your class includes any second language learners, provide
outlines of lecture notes or planned classroom discussion
topics in advance. Written materials help to reinforce
what you say. They also make it possible for the student
to review materials later at a slower pace or to look
up unfamiliar vocabulary.
keep in mind how you would feel if you suddenly found
yourself as a student in another country whose language
was only marginally familiar to you. Being educated
in your own language wouldn't help you at all. You would
still require additional help to comprehend the discussions
going on around you.
whose native language is other than English face special
challenges when class work turns to large numbers. Often
when native speakers discuss numbers, they speak very
quickly, blurring the sounds.
the nonnative speakers are experiencing any difficulty,
write the numbers under discussion on the board along
with the sign indicating the operation being performed.
It is usually not the calculation that causes the problem
but the indistinct sounds involved in processing a string
of numbers. Most bilingual adults revert to their primary
language to perform the calculation mentally in their
heads and then translate the answer into English.
your class consists of students with differing levels
of English fluency, some material can be especially
challengingespecially in the area of role-playing.
Encourage active participation of all students in these
activities, but keep in mind varying ability levels.
Pair nonnative with native speakers for oral exercises
regular classroom activities, allow sufficient time
for nonnative speakers to answer oral questions. This
will help them gain confidence in their communication
skills. Also, note that there will be a big difference
in students' English skills depending on how long they
have been in the United States.
whose native language is other than English may find
the legal terminology used in extended warranty features
or in credit applications overwhelming. Because these
topics are important to students and consumers alike,
you may wish to spend extra time going over this vocabulary,
and provide real life examples for students to read.
Allow time for students to ask questions and receive
clarification of any unfamiliar terminology.
job search process can be a monumental challenge to
people whose native language is other than English,
especially if they are newcomers. In order for these
individuals to attain their goals, extensive practice
and role-play dealing with the job search situations
described in the chapter can make the difference between
employment and despair. Peer partners selected for role-play
should include one native speaker and one nonnative
speaker, if possible. Give extra attention to telephone
situations and dealing with government agencies, both
of which can be intimidating situations for those who
feel uncertain about using English.
with speech impairments may have impediments ranging
from problems with articulation or voice strength to
being without ability to speak. These impairments can
include stuttering, chronic hoarseness, or difficulty
in expressing an appropriate word or phrase. Typically,
such students refrain as much as possible from class
participation. When speaking with a student with speech
impairments, use normal communication patterns and refrain
from completing words or phrases for the student. Some
students use electronic speaking machines or are adept
at using body language to communicate. Your role as
teacher is to create an environment in which all students
can participate to the best of their abilities.
with speech impairments often do not feel comfortable
participating in exercises devoted to interpersonal
skills because the physical difficulties they experience
can make the exercises uncomfortable for them. Even
so, these students can benefit from watching others
and participating at a level they select as comfortable.
classroom rules regarding nonjudgmental behavior and
never allowing ridicule of any sort in the classroom
can go a long way to encourage participation from all
students. Another way to give students with oral expression
difficulty an outlet is to allow students to submit
written questions about material that they find challenging.
with speech impairments benefit from an opportunity
to make a contribution to the class in ways other than
in-class discussion. For example, students might prepare
a bulletin board display or a report on a topic that
could be distributed to all students. Make assignments
in accordance with students' interests and talents.
The opportunity to participate is the key and involvement
can take root if students are given regular opportunities.
Keep in mind, these students do benefit from listening
to class discussion even if they are not comfortable
with visual/spatial difficulties may have difficulty
working with accounting-oriented content. You will need
to describe accounting procedures and operations specifically
with these students in mind. Do not assume that they
can follow what you are saying while you perform calculations
on the board. Take special care to name categories (i.e.,
accounting entries and spreadsheet cells) and to explain
how figures are calculated. Also, provide an opportunity
for students to ask questions or request assistance
with visual challenges face special risks and require
special tools in order to participate in academic and
workplace environments. The specific tools can vary
from reading machines to Braille texts to the use of
guide dogs. Some students benefit from working with
a peer "visual translator" who is able to verbally describe
visual images, such as the photos in the textbook to
the student. If you have students with visual impairments
in your class, you may wish to implement this cooperative
with the volume of printed material in class can be
a challenge for students with visual impairments. To
meet this challenge, such students often use a combination
of resources, such as readers, books in Braille, recorded
books, and class lectures.
make lectures more helpful to students with visual impairments,
you need to think carefully about what you say in class.
Consider writing on the board while talking through
a computation. Use examples that are clear and specific
and don't require interpretation. "This (pointing) plus
that (pointing) equals 11" requires clarification; "4
plus 7 equals 11" doesn't. Sensitivity to student needs
is the key.