Students with behavior disorders
of any type require a class environment that provides
both support and structure so that they know what to
expect and what will be expected of them. Experiment
to determine the best learning modality for each student
and structure activities accordingly. For example, a
visual learner would benefit from having material presented
in the form of photographs or computer graphics. Students
who act out in class may need assignments to match their
learning styles. Approaches like these will help students
comprehend the material and enable them to participate
better in class discussions.
Gifted students may find that the material
in this chapter offers them a first look at real-world
organizational behavior. Encourage these students to
take on a wide variety of enrichment and independent
practice activities that will put them in contact with
people in the business world and allow them to observe
the daily practices that lead to success. Be sure they
have the opportunity to present written summaries of
their findings and let them share what they observed
with the group.
Have gifted students work in small
groups to complete an analysis of the stocks offered
by a company of their choice. Encourage each group to
employ a variety of research techniques to put together
a profile of the company and explain why that company's
stock would be a good financial investment.
Students in your class who consistently
finish work more quickly than others and who have above
average ability, task commitment, and creativity may
be considered gifted. You may wish to challenge these
students to work on an independent project related to
investment alternatives, such as real estate, precious
metals, gems, and collectibles. Have them choose a specific
alternative investment and calculate an estimated return
on investment in, say, 10 years.
For students who would benefit from
the additional work of an independent project, assign
the task of researching a successful business in the
area and discovering through written reports and/or
personal interviews how the concepts described Unit
5, Introduction to Business Finance, and Unit 6, Organization
and Financial Planning, affected the business in its
first few years. For example, how did their initial
estimates of profitability vary from paper to real numbers?
What sources of financing did the business utilize,
and what would they recommend to other businesses in
the start-up phase?
You may find it helpful to pair students
with hearing impairments with hearing partners to work
on the activities and questions presented in this chapter.
Hearing students can assist students with hearing impairments
by writing a summary of all oral directions given in
class. In addition to benefiting students with hearing
impairments, the hearing student will also benefit from
the enhanced knowledge they gain about how students
with hearing impairments compensate for their challenge.
Students with hearing impairments
can and do participate in a wide range of classroom
activities. To encourage their maximum participation,
look at these students when you speak. Do this even
if the student talks with the assistance of an interpreter.
Not only is this more courteous, but it also allows
the student with hearing impairments the option of viewing
you and your lip movements directly. If class materials
involve technical terminology, supply a list of these
words in advance to the student and his or her interpreter.
Unfamiliar words can be difficult to lip-read or sign
without prior exposure.
Many students with hearing impairments,
ranging from complete loss to moderate loss, communicate
mainly by sign language. When it comes to written English,
they are actually using it as a second language, much
like students who are nonnative speakers.
Many factors affect the comfort level
of students with hearing impairments. These include
personality, intelligence, degree of deafness, residual
hearing, age of onset of deafness, and family environment.
This does not mean, however, that you should overlook
errors in spoken or written English. Improvement can
occur with increased use, correction, and exposure.
Students who wear hearing aids can
be easily distracted by background noise, so it is important
to restrict unneeded interference. Each hearing aid
has its own limited range of use. Therefore, you will
need to learn how close to stand so the student can
hear you. Keep in mind that comments made in the back
of the room may be inaudible. You can repeat questions
or comments for the benefit of the hearing-impaired,
or include a question in your answer.
If you have students in your class
with learning disabilities, they may require additional
guidelines or even study aides to get the most out of
the material presented in the textbook. For example,
for students who find the written text difficult to
use, you may wish to make chapter audio tapes so they
can listen and read simultaneously. The tapes can be
made with the help of other students in the class. Select
students whose voices are clear and easy to follow.
Set a relaxed pace for the reading, and use a bell or
clicker to signal when to turn pages. Getting as many
students as possible involved can make the audio tape
preparation a real class project in the best tradition
of cooperative learning.
Students with learning disabilities
can have difficulty processing information in written
and/or oral form. It is important that students with
learning disabilities receive and give information in
a way that works best for them.
Students who have difficulty processing
written work often find it helpful to have the text
tape-recorded. Obtaining information from visual representations
such as graphs, charts, tables, and headings also helps.
Students who have problems with spoken presentations
are advised to read materials before class discussion.
They should also read notes taken in class by other
students to ensure that they are not missing any valuable
Because students with learning disabilities
may have trouble with symbols, such as numbers, learning
the material in the chapter could present challenges.
Some students can more easily access the information
when it is read aloud, either by a person or on tape.
Students who have difficulty communicating effectively
through printing or cursive writing may prefer to use
a computer to perform calculations or to dictate their
work to another person. In general, students with learning
disabilities benefit from a classroom that incorporates
a wide variety of learning modalities (visual, auditory,
tactile, and kinesthetic).
Students with learning disabilities
may require additional assistance completing some of
the activities in Chapter 21, Developing a Business
Plan. The scope of developing a business plan can be
complex and requires analytical ability and methodical
work. Break the task up into self-contained steps and
provide additional assistance as needed. A variety of
resources can come into play, including peer assistance
or adult mentors. Students with learning disabilities
require more support and structure. Clearly specify
the scope of the assignment and review their work on
a regular basis throughout the course of the project.
Providing a positive learning environment
for all the students in your class may require you to
modify or rethink some of your teaching methods. If
you have students in your class with learning disabilities,
you may wish to consult specialists in your school regarding
techniques that have proven effective in teaching these
students. You might also consult the Journal of Learning
Disabilities or the Learning Disability Quarterly.
Pairing students with peer helpers, when appropriate,
can also serve to increase the participation of students
with learning disabilities in class activities, provided
a good pair match can be made.
with Orthopedic Disabilities
One of the special situations brought
up by having students with orthopedic impairments in
your class is that you have the opportunity to educate
other students and adults about people with physical
impairments. Speak with your students who have orthopedic
impairments ahead of time, discuss any issues you feel
uncertain about, and read the various educational journals
about ways in which students with physical impairments
are succeeding in the world. You can learn a great deal
and overcome any doubts you may have about the capabilities
of these individuals. Be aware that the way you treat
students with physical impairments will be imitated.
Use the opportunity to increase student awareness.
Career choices for students with
orthopedic impairments need not be limited in any way
other than by the interests and talents of the individual
student. In order to help all students overcome preconceived
notions about existing career choices, invite a marketer,
entrepreneur, or other successful person with physical
impairments to class to speak about his or her career.
Invite him or her to discuss any obstacles that could
have hindered his or her success and how they were overcome.
Allow time for questions and encourage students to ask
questions about physical barriers to entering buildings
as well as biased treatment.
If you have students who have orthopedic
impairments, making sure they have access to the classroom
can be one of the first steps you take to ensure their
full participation in the class. Be aware that a barrier
can be a stair, a curb, a narrow walkway, a heavy door,
or an elevator door that does not allow time for a wheelchair
exit. Classroom tables need at least 27½ inches
of clearance for a student in a wheelchair.
Also keep in mind that some students
in wheelchairs have full use of their hands and others
do not. Never assume that a physically challenged student
can or can't do something based on experience with another
The Americans with Disabilities Act
of 1990 makes it illegal for companies to deny employment
opportunities to otherwise qualified individuals who
have real or perceived mental or physical disabilities.
It also requires employers to make reasonable accommodations
to enable disabled workers to perform their work. This
includes access to entrances and exits and to the work
itself. These factors influence workplace design and
personnel space design, as well as encourage companies
to design buildings that all people can enter and exit
without difficulty. You may wish to consider these issues
in chapter discussions.
If your class involves field research
or field trips of any kind, encourage students with
orthopedic impairments to participate in site selection
and transportation planning to ensure the access to
all sites for all students. Access issues are of major
concern for students who use wheelchairs, and barriers,
such as stairs, curbs, narrow walkways, heavy doors,
etc., must be taken into account when planning an event.
By making the fieldwork accessible to all students,
you allow a positive rather than an exclusionary situation.
Awareness is the key issue, along with a willingness
to learn of the daily problems faced by those with physical
Students who use wheelchairs do so
as a result of a wide variety of disabilities. Most
wheelchairs are electric or manually propelled by the
student, but some students who have limited use of hands
or arms may have an aide to assist them. Most students
who need other assistance will ask. Don't automatically
assume that assistance is required. Do not insist on
"helping" if your offer is turned down. Students
who use wheelchairs will appreciate your awareness if
you are not so aware of their disability that it becomes
all you see about them.
Second Language Learners
If your class includes any second language
learners, provide outlines of lecture notes or planned
classroom discussion topics in advance. Written materials
help to reinforce what you say. They also make it possible
for the student to review materials later at a slower
pace or to look up unfamiliar vocabulary.
Always keep in mind how you would
feel if you suddenly found yourself as a student in
another country whose language was only marginally familiar
to you. Being educated in your own language wouldn't
help you at all. You would still require additional
help to comprehend the discussions going on around you.
Students whose native language is
other than English face special challenges when class
work turns to large numbers. Often when native speakers
discuss numbers, they speak very quickly, blurring the
If the nonnative speakers are experiencing
any difficulty, write the numbers under discussion on
the board along with the sign indicating the operation
being performed. It is usually not the calculation that
causes the problem but the indistinct sounds involved
in processing a string of numbers. Most bilingual adults
revert to their primary language to perform the calculation
mentally in their heads and then translate the answer
If your class consists of students
with differing levels of English fluency, some material
can be especially challengingespecially in the
area of role-playing. Encourage active participation
of all students in these activities, but keep in mind
varying ability levels. Pair nonnative with native speakers
for oral exercises when appropriate.
In regular classroom activities,
allow sufficient time for nonnative speakers to answer
oral questions. This will help them gain confidence
in their communication skills. Also, note that there
will be a big difference in students' English skills
depending on how long they have been in the United States.
Students whose native language is
other than English may find the legal terminology used
in extended warranty features or in credit applications
overwhelming. Because these topics are important to
students and consumers alike, you may wish to spend
extra time going over this vocabulary, and provide real
life examples for students to read. Allow time for students
to ask questions and receive clarification of any unfamiliar
The job search process can be a monumental
challenge to people whose native language is other than
English, especially if they are newcomers. In order
for these individuals to attain their goals, extensive
practice and role-play dealing with the job search situations
described in the chapter can make the difference between
employment and despair. Peer partners selected for role-play
should include one native speaker and one nonnative
speaker, if possible. Give extra attention to telephone
situations and dealing with government agencies, both
of which can be intimidating situations for those who
feel uncertain about using English.
Students with speech impairments may
have impediments ranging from problems with articulation
or voice strength to being without ability to speak.
These impairments can include stuttering, chronic hoarseness,
or difficulty in expressing an appropriate word or phrase.
Typically, such students refrain as much as possible
from class participation. When speaking with a student
with speech impairments, use normal communication patterns
and refrain from completing words or phrases for the
student. Some students use electronic speaking machines
or are adept at using body language to communicate.
Your role as teacher is to create an environment in
which all students can participate to the best of their
Students with speech impairments
often do not feel comfortable participating in exercises
devoted to interpersonal skills because the physical
difficulties they experience can make the exercises
uncomfortable for them. Even so, these students can
benefit from watching others and participating at a
level they select as comfortable.
Enforcing classroom rules regarding
nonjudgmental behavior and never allowing ridicule of
any sort in the classroom can go a long way to encourage
participation from all students. Another way to give
students with oral expression difficulty an outlet is
to allow students to submit written questions about
material that they find challenging.
Students with speech impairments
benefit from an opportunity to make a contribution to
the class in ways other than in-class discussion. For
example, students might prepare a bulletin board display
or a report on a topic that could be distributed to
all students. Make assignments in accordance with students'
interests and talents. The opportunity to participate
is the key and involvement can take root if students
are given regular opportunities. Keep in mind, these
students do benefit from listening to class discussion
even if they are not comfortable contributing.
Students with visual/spatial difficulties
may have difficulty working with accounting-oriented
content. You will need to describe accounting procedures
and operations specifically with these students in mind.
Do not assume that they can follow what you are saying
while you perform calculations on the board. Take special
care to name categories (i.e., accounting entries and
spreadsheet cells) and to explain how figures are calculated.
Also, provide an opportunity for students to ask questions
or request assistance with calculations.
Students with visual challenges face
special risks and require special tools in order to
participate in academic and workplace environments.
The specific tools can vary from reading machines to
Braille texts to the use of guide dogs. Some students
benefit from working with a peer "visual translator"
who is able to verbally describe visual images, such
as the photos in the textbook to the student. If you
have students with visual impairments in your class,
you may wish to implement this cooperative learning
Coping with the volume of printed
material in class can be a challenge for students with
visual impairments. To meet this challenge, such students
often use a combination of resources, such as readers,
books in Braille, recorded books, and class lectures.
To make lectures more helpful to
students with visual impairments, you need to think
carefully about what you say in class. Consider writing
on the board while talking through a computation. Use
examples that are clear and specific and don't require
interpretation. "This (pointing) plus that (pointing)
equals 11" requires clarification; "4 plus
7 equals 11" doesn't. Sensitivity to student needs
is the key.